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Articles by Keyword - Pathogenesis
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There are some people whose purpose in life is to entertain. Some of us are fortunate to have them as our patients.
Departments: Confusion, Expressive Aphasia, Gait Instability
A 49-year-old man presented to the hospital with confusion, dysarthria, expressive aphasia, and progressive gait instability.
Features: The Microbiome
Not even the most solitary of all human beings is really ever alone. Indeed, we always have company, with the numerically greatest number of life companions small and invisible, and residing within inside us who, like Gulliver, are genuine giants in comparison. From the very moment we are born, an astounding, complex, and dynamic consortium of microorganisms occupies our body cavities (skin, airways, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts) and coexists with us harmoniously as long as we breathe. This...
Features: Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis
A 43-year-old woman presented to a rheumatologist for evaluation with a six-week history of arthralgias in the wrist, metacarpophalangeal (MCP), and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. On examination, MCP joints were tender to palpation, and the left wrist and the right third and fourth PIPs were swollen. Because of a positive rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody test, the patient was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and started on methotrexate and, subsequently,...
A 64-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the hospital with a 1.5-month history of severe headache, confusion, personality change, and progressive cognitive decline. He had no previous medical problems. Results of the physical examination showed ataxia. The mental status exam revealed impairment of cognitive functions. Laboratory test findings were unremarkable. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 2 mm/hour. Tests with normal or negative findings included serum antinuclear antibodies,...
Features: A&R Abstracts: CNS Vasculitis
Want to know more about vasculitis in the nervous system? Check out these abstracts from Arthritis & Rheumatism, and log on to www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/arthritis to read the full articles.
Features: T Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Recently, belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets the cytokine BLyS, was the first new drug in the last 50 years to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The relative lack of new therapies for SLE indicates how little we understand about this difficult disease. SLE is a disease characterized by production of autoantibodies, some of which mediate disease pathogenesis. Yet, in clinical trials rituximab, a B cell–depleting...
Features: What Fat Does to Arthritis
A dipose tissue has longed been viewed as a harmless tissue in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory connective tissue and joint diseases, with fat providing the soft surroundings for damage inflicted by other mechanisms. This dogma, based on the protective role of leptin in metabolic diseases, has long been popular, although it may have hindered thorough basic science research in this field. However, three discoveries have completely changed this point of view and will be the subject of this article.
HMGB1 can serve as an alarmin. Alarmins are cellular molecules that promote inflammation and activate innate and adaptive immunity. In its activity as an alarmin, HMGB1 can interact with receptors that include receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 4, and 9. There is increasing evidence that HMGB1 is involved in autoimmunity and chronic inflammation, as exemplified by increased levels of HMGB1 in the sera of patients with rheumatic disease. Recently, an...
Features: A&R Abstracts - ADIPOKINES
Want to know more about adipokines and their role in rheumatic disease? Check out these abstracts from Arthritis & Rheumatism, and log on to www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/arthritis to read the full articles.