Rheumatology Drug Updates: Apremilast, Golimumab, and More

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Apremilast is a twice daily, investigational, oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor. It is being studied in clinical trials as a treatment for psoriatic arthritis.1 Its manufacturer recently reported clinically meaningful improvements for the primary endpoint (ACR20 at Week 16), as well as other measures of signs and symptoms and physical function improvement in three randomized, controlled, parallel-group, 24-week clinical trials. These studies, known as PALACE 1, 2, and 3, involved more than 1,500 patients with psoriatic arthritis who had received or failed oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and/or a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–α inhibitor therapy. Patients received either apremilast as monotherapy or in combination with oral DMARDs. The anticipated filing of its new drug application will likely be in the first quarter of 2013. A European submission is expected in the second quarter of 2013.

Golimumab has had a Biologics License Application (BLA) submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requesting approval of an investigational intravenous (IV) formulation to treat adults with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).2 The results of the phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of golimumab, an anti–TNF-α monoclonal antibody administered intravenously, in subjects with active RA despite methotrexate therapy (GO-FURTHER) trial, support this application. The trial studied the safety and efficacy of IV golimumab combined with methotrexate (MTX) via a 30-minute infusion at Weeks 0 and 4 and then every eight weeks versus placebo in 592 adults over 24 weeks.

Synavive, a combination of prednisolone and dipyramidamole, was being studied as a safer alternative to steroids for symptom management in patients with moderate to severe RA.3 Clinical trials have ceased due to a lack of improvement of the combination therapy compared with the effects of prednisolone alone.

On July 30, the FDA issued a Complete Response Letter for the supplemental BLA (sBLA) for rilonacept injection for subcutaneous (Sub-Q) use, for the prevention of gout flares in patients initiating uric acid-lowering therapy.4 The letter states that the drug cannot be approved in its current form, and the FDA has requested additional clinical data, as well as additional chemistry, manufacturing, and control information.

Yet again, the FDA requested additional clinical data on the oral janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib to treat RA.5 In late July, phase III data from the ORAL Start trial showed that two different doses of tofacitinib were superior to MTX monotherapy in reducing the signs and symptoms via ACR70 in adults (n=958) with moderate to severe active RA, as well as in inhibiting structural damage (as measured by change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score). No new safety signals were identified.

Drug Approvals/Modifications

Phentermine/topiramate extended-release capsules (Qsymia) are now available through online pharmacies.6 Phentermine/topiramate extended release capsules were approved in July. It is the first new FDA-approved weight-loss product to enter the U.S. market in close to 13 years. It is approved for use as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity for chronic weight management in adults with an initial body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or greater (obese); or 27 kg/m2 or greater (overweight), in the presence of at least one weight-related comorbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia.7 In clinical trials of 52 weeks’ duration, patients lost 11% to 14% percent of their body weight. Prediabetic patients had the most remarkable weight loss. These patients had lower blood glucose levels but also were able to stop taking some of their diabetes medications. This new product is available as capsules in the following doses of phentermine and extended-release topiramate, respectively: 3.75 mg/23 mg; 7.5 mg/46 mg; 11.25 mg/69 mg, and 15 mg/92 mg. It is taken once daily in the morning (to prevent evening insomnia) for 14 days and then escalated to the 7.5 mg/46 mg dose once daily in the morning. It is recommended to discontinue the agent or the dose escalation if 3% weight loss is not achieved after 12 weeks on the 7.5 mg/46mg dose; and to discontinue the agent if 5% weight loss is not achieved after 12 weeks on the maximum daily dose of 15 mg/92 mg once daily. If a patient is receiving the maximum dose and it is to be discontinued, it should be gradually tapered to prevent possible seizures. A dose of 7.5 mg/46 mg should not be exceeded in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment or patients with moderate hepatic impairment. The dosing guideline on the label should be followed.7 Contraindications include a known hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, being pregnant, having glaucoma or hyperthyroidism, and taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor currently or within the last 14 days. The most common adverse reactions with an incidence greater ≥5% in clinical trials were paresthesia, dizziness, dysgeusia, insomnia, constipation, and dry mouth. Using this agent with other weight-loss products—whether over-the-counter (OTC), prescription, or as supplements—has not been studied and is not recommended. The drug’s cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have not been established. A Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy is available for this agent, mostly pertaining to its contraindication for use in pregnant women.8 This includes a Medication Guide and Elements to Assure Safe Use in the form of online healthcare professional training on the safe use of the product and certification of pharmacies that dispense the agent.

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