Current supportive data, coupled with the innocuous, inexpensive, generally beneficial effect of optimally corrected custom foot inserts, necessitates that this adjunctive therapy become standardized. Indeed, it is time we changed our thinking.
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Explore This IssueMarch 2010
Dr. Pack is a physician at MCG Medical Associates in Greensboro, Ga., and a founding fellow of the ACR.
- Hunter DJ, Lo GH. The Management of osteoarthritis: An overview and call to appropriate conservative treatment. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2008;34:689-671.
- Total knee replacements increase mobility and motor skills in older patients. Available at www.physorg.com/news165168783.html. Published June 25, 2009. Accessed February 11, 2010.
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- Williams DS 3rd, McClay Davis I, Baitch SP. Effect of inverted orthoses on lower-extremity mechanics in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:2060-2068.
- MacLean C, Davis IM, Hamill J. Influence of a custom foot orthotic intervention on lower extremity dynamics in healthy runners. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006; 21:623-630.
- Mündermann A, Nigg BM, Humble RN, Stefanyshyn DJ. Foot orthotics affect lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during running. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2003;18:254-262.
- Kerrigan DC, Lelas JL, Goggins J, Merriman GJ, Kaplan RJ, Felson DT. Effectiveness of a lateral-wedge insole on knee varus torque in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83:889-893.
- Schmalz T, Blumentritt S, Drewitz H, Freslier M. The influence of sole wedges on frontal plane knee kinetics, in isolation and in combination with representative rigid and semi-rigid ankle-foot-orthoses. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006;21:631-639.
- Gross MT, Foxworth JL. The role of foot orthoses as an intervention for patellofemoral pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33:661-670.
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- Powell M, Seid M, Szer IS. Efficacy of custom foot orthotics in improving pain and functional status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A randomized trial. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:943-950.
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- Hunter DJ. Preface. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2008;34:xiii-xvi.
- Sharma L, Song J, Felson DT, Cahue S, Shamiyeh E, Dunlop DD. The role of knee alignment in disease progression and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis. JAMA. 2001;286:188-195.
- Janakiramanan N, Teichtahl AJ, Wluka AE, et al. Static knee alignment is associated with the risk of unicompartmental knee cartilage defects. J Orthop Res. 2008;26:225-230.
- Tanamas S, Hanna FS, Cicuttini FM, Wluka AE, Berry P, Urquhart DM. Does knee malalignment increase the risk of development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61:459-467.
- Brouwer GM, van Tol AW, Bergink AP, et al. Association between valgus and varus alignment and the development and progression of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:1204-1211.
- Personal communications, Dr. Patience White, Chief Public Health Officer, Arthritis Foundation, White Paper in April, 2009.
There is much supportive data regarding the role of pathomechanics in OA. In the preface to an issue of Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America devoted to the topic of OA, Hunter wrote that osteoarthritis “is no longer viewed as a passive, degenerative disorder but rather an active disease process driven primarily by mechanical factors.” He now believes that “mechanics plays a critical role in the initiation, progression, and successful treatment of OA,” and recommends that we “learn from the insights our research is providing to focus even more on important modifiable risk factors such as mechanics.” He adds that, by doing so, “we have the opportunity to make a difference in millions of peoples’ lives.”29