Researchers examined the degree of digitization and 30-day death rates for patients age 65 and older at 3,249 hospitals nationwide from 2008 to 2013. While many academic hospitals already used electronic health records at the start of the study period, many other hospitals didn’t make this transition until after 2009 when the U.S. government set aside $30 billion to encourage investment in health technology, researchers note in Health Affairs, online July 9.
At the start of the study period, for every electronic health function – such as medication lists, computerized prescribing, and clinical decision support – that was already fully implemented, hospitals had 0.11 additional deaths per 100 patient admissions, or a 0.11 percentage-point higher mortality rate, researchers found.
Over time, however, each of the functions adopted at the start of the study period were associated with a 0.09 percentage-point drop in annual death rates. And, every new function added during the study period was also associated with a 0.21 percentage-point reduction in annual death rates.
“Our overall findings were driven by what was happening in small and non-teaching hospitals,” and not at the academic medical centers, said senior study author Julia Adler-Milstein of the University of California, San Francisco.
“So, for patients considering care at these types of hospitals, it might be good to know how digital they are and then, if there is a need to receive hospital care and the patient has a say in where that occurs, pick a hospital that is more digital and has been digital for longer,” Adler-Milstein said by email.
While the study wasn’t a controlled experiment designed to prove whether or how converting to electronic health records (EHR) directly impacts hospital death rates, the study team speculates that the larger and academic hospitals had ongoing quality improvement efforts that left less room to show mortality benefits when they went digital.
For smaller community hospitals, however, adopting electronic health records might have made a bigger difference in improving the quality of care.
In contrast, for smaller and non-teaching hospitals, EHR adoption may have represented a large, highly visible quality improvement initiative that also prompted broader quality efforts.
Hospitals can take steps to make the transition as smooth as possible, said Ann Kutney-Lee, a researcher at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing in Philadelphia who wasn’t involved in the study.