A geriatric consult was obtained to help educate him regarding addiction to opioids, as well as to explore goals of care, but he continued to insist on the use of a nonnarcotic regimen for his pain.
- Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition and the Kidney End-of-Life Coalition. Clinical algorithm and preferred medications to treat pain in dialysis patients. Coalition for Supportive Care of Kidney Patients website. Available at: www.kidneysupportivecare.org/Physicians-Clinicians/Pain—Symptom-Management.aspx. Accessed June 30, 2013.
- Launay-Vacher V, Karie S, Fau JB, Izzedine H, Deray G. Treatment of pain in patients with renal insufficiency: The World Health Organization three-step ladder adapted. J Pain. 2005;6:137-148.
- Dean, M. Opioids in renal failure and dialysis patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004;28:497-504.
- Arnold R, Verrico P, Davison SN. Opioid use in renal failure. Medical College of Wisconsin website. Available at: www.eperc.mcw.edu/EPERC/FastFactsIndex/ff_161.htm. Accessed June 30, 2013.
Pain management in patients with renal insufficiency and dialysis can be challenging, but there are a number of safe nonnarcotic and narcotic pain regimens that can be safely used in this patient population.
- Safe, nonopioid options for pain management in renally impaired and dialysis patients include acetaminophen and certain NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen.
- Fentanyl, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone are the safest opioids to use in renally impaired and dialysis patients.
- Tramadol in lower doses may also be safely used in renally impaired and dialysis patients.
- Low-dose gabapentin and lidocaine patches can be safely used as adjunctive therapy in renally impaired and dialysis patients; TCAs may also be used in lower doses in renally impaired patients.
Dr. Harisingani is a hospitalist at Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y., and Drs. Saad and Cassagnol are assistant clinical professors at St. Johns University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences in Jamaica, N.Y., and clinical pharmacy coordinators at Long Island Jewish Medical Center.
- Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition and the Kidney End-of-Life Coalition. Clinical algorithm & preferred medications to treat pain in dialysis patients. Coalition for Supportive Care of Kidney Patients website. Available at: www.kidneysupportivecare.org/Physicians-Clinicians/Pain—Symptom-Management.aspx. Accessed Nov. 18, 2012.
- Barakzoy AS, Moss AH. Efficacy of the World Health Organization analgesic ladder to treat pain in end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:3198-3203.
- Johnson SJ. Opioid safety in patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction. Pain Treatment Topics website. Available at: http://pain-topics.org/pdf/Opioids-Renal-Hepatic-Dysfunction.pdf. Accessed Nov. 28, 2012.
- Ferrell B, Argoff CE, Epplin J, et al. American Geriatrics Society Panel on Pharmacological Management of Persistent Pain in Older Persons. Pharmacological management of persistent pain in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:1331-1346.
- Prescott LF, Speirs GC, Critchley JA, Temple RM, Winney RJ. Paracetamol disposition and metabolite kinetics in patients with chronic renal failure. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1989;36:291-297.
- Launay-Vacher V, Karie S, Fau JB, Izzedine H, Deray G. Treatment of pain in patients with renal insufficiency: The World Health Organization three-step ladder adapted. J Pain. 2006;6:137-148.
- Berg KJ, Djøseland O, Gjellan A, et al. Acute effects of paracetamol on prostaglandin synthesis and renal function in normal man and in patients with renal failure. Clin Nephrol. 1990;34:255-262.
- Delbarre F, Roucayrol JC, Amor B, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of ketoprofen (19.583 R.P.) in man using the tritiated compound. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1976;1976:45-52.
- Shen CH, Hung CJ, Wu CC, Huang HW, Ho WM. Rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure after morphine overdose—a case report. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin. 1999;37:159-162.
- Ketorolac tromethamine oral tablets [package insert]. St. Louis: Ethex Corp.; 2008.
- Brocks DR, Jamali F. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1992;23:415-427. Erratum in: Clin Pharmacokinet. 1999;24:270.
- Ponstel [package insert]. Alpharetta, GA: First Horizon Pharmaceutical Corp.; 2006.
- Naprosyn [package insert]. Nutley, NJ: Roche Laboratories Inc.; 2008.
- Celebrex [package insert]. New York: G.D. Searle LLC; 2011.
- Catella-Lawson F, McAdam B, Morrison BW, et al. Effects of specific inhibition of cyclooygenase-2 on sodium balance, hemodynamics, and vasoactive eicosanoids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;289:735-741.
- Dean M. Opioids in renal failure and dialysis patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004;28:497-504.
- Lee MA, Leng ME, Tiernan EJ. Retrospective study of the use of hydromorphone in palliative care patients with normal and abnormal urea and creatinine. Palliat Med. 2001;15:26-34.
- Gibson TP. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of analgesia with a focus on tramadol HCI. Am J. Med. 1996;101(1A):47S-53S.
- Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Abbara C, Aymard G, Bassilios N, Deray G. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol in a hemodialysis patient. Nephron. 2002;92:755-756.
- Hasselström J, Säwe J. Morphine pharmacokinetics and metabolism in humans. Enterohepatic cycling and relative contribution of metabolites to active opioid concentrations. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1993;24:344-354.
- Andersen G, Christrup L, Sjøgren P. Relationships among morphine metabolism, pain and side effects during long-term treatment: An update. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;25:74-91.
- Lidoderm [package insert]. Chadds Ford, PA: Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2010.
- Carter GT, Galer BS. Advances in the management of neuropathic pain. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2001;12:447-459.
- Ho KY, Gan TJ, Habib AS. Gabapentin and postoperative pain—a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Pain. 2006;15:126(1-3):91-101.
- Neurontin [package insert]. New York: Parke-Davis; 2010.
- Pandey CK, Priye S, Singh S, et al. Preemptive use of gabapentin significantly decreases postoperative pain and rescue analgesic requirements in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Can J Anaesth. 2004;51:358-363.
- Srivastava U, Kumar A, Saxena S, et al: Effect of preoperative gabapentin on postoperative pain and tramadol consumption after minilap open cholecystectomy: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27(N4):331-335.
- Lyrica [package insert]. New York: Pfizer Inc.; 2012.
- Broadbent A, Khor K, Heaney A. Palliation and chronic renal failure: Opioid and other palliative medications—dosage guidelines. Progress in Palliative Care. 2003;11:183-190(8).
- Nayak-Rao S. Achieving effective pain relief in patients with chronic kidney disease: A review of analgesics in renal failure. J Nephrol. 2011;24:35-40.
- Wolters Kluwer Health. Facts & comparisons. Wolters Kluwer Health website. Available at: www.factsandcomparisons.com. Accessed Jan. 14, 2013.
- Lexicomp. Lexicomp Online. Lexicomp website. Available at: www.lexi.com/institutions/products/online/. Accessed Jan. 14, 2013.
Reprinted from The Hospitalist August 2013, with permission from the Society of Hospital Medicine.